How to have an accessible input while the label isn’t present?

In another bite-sized post I want to take the time to cover a common UI pattern that you’ll find on almost every website. Which is an input field with no visual label at all. Just a placeholder and perhaps with an icon.

I'll explain what's missing or what's flawed with the approaches you'll see on on most websites. As an example we’ll use a search field since it's quite common and it fits the UI pattern quite well.

The bare essentials and why it's flawed to begin with

Let's dive into a basic search field example which represents this pattern. An input with no label.

<form role="search">
  <input type="search" name="search" placeholder="Find repositories.."/>

Perhaps you've noticed — or you already know this — that the input element has search as its type instead of text, and you might expect the latter. The difference of using search over text is that the user is able to reset the search query through the Esc key and it’s announced as a search

So our search field has a placeholder with ”Find repositories..“. It doesn't have a label associated with the input field, because why should we have one if it's visually not there. Right?

What’s so flawed about it?

You might wonder what the problems are with the example above? Well, in this example there’s two problems I’ll cover.

  1. The placeholder is used as a substitute for the label.
  2. People who use Voice Control, or something similiar, aren’t able to interact directly with the search field.

Placeholder shenanigans

When you do a search for placeholder combined with accessibility, you'll see a lot of articles on why you shouldn't use placeholders to begin with. This is because the placeholder attribute is tied to a lot of accessible problems. I’ll cover those problems on a different time because it’s beyond the scope of this post.

The main takeaway I want to share about the placeholder attribute is that we shouldn’t depend on it. The intent of a placeholder isn’t the same as the intent of a label. And this is important for assistive technologies, like screen readers. To give you an example. In 2019 JAWS, one the biggest screen readers,[^1] changed how they processed the placeholder attribute. Before this change the placeholder attribute was completely ignored.

Voice Control can’t be fully utilised

The second problem is that assistive technology like Voice Control can’t interact with the search field directly. What do I mean by that? Well, it's not possible to use the command “Click search”. This command in Voice Control lets you select any interactible element based on the name of the label. Considering that we don't have a label (yet), we're not able to use this command.

So how could we solve this?

We have a couple of options at our disposal:

  1. The first option is to add an explicit label. If you want to read more on what an explicit label is and how we could add them: The what, why and how on labels . The twist in this situation, however, is that we’ll hide the label visually through CSS.
  2. As a second option we could use the aria-label attribute. This doesn’t require any CSS magic to hide it since the aria-label attribute isn’t visually shown.

First option: the invisible label

The first step is through adding an explicit label for our search field:

<form role="search">
  <label for="search-input" class="sr-only">Find repositories..</label>
  <input id="search-input" type="search" name="search" placeholder="Find repositories.."/>

Note: If a placeholder is present with a label, make sure that the values match exactly. Yes, including the dots. Otherwise the screen reader — in this case Voice Over on MacOS — will announce the value of the label followed by the value of the placeholder.

We’re not done of course, since we now have a label that’s still visible. And the requirement from the design (or from somewhere else) was quite clear. We shouldn’t have a visible label. So the next step is to perform some CSS magic which will turn our label invisible.

You might have spotted the sr-only class on the label. The following snippet is the CSS magic that will turn our label invisible.

.sr-only {
	clip: rect(0 0 0 0);
	clip-path: inset(50%);
	height: 1px;
	overflow: hidden;
	position: absolute;
	white-space: nowrap;
	width: 1px;

Credit for this CSS snippet goes to Scott O'Hara [^2]

Even though it’s visually not there, the label still remains visible in the Accessible tree[^3] which is exactly what we need to make our search field accessible.

Second option: the other invisible label, aria-label

If, for whatever reason, it’s not possible to add an explicit label then we’ll turn to the second option. The aria-label attribute. It has the same semantic meaning as the label, so it’s doing a lot better than the placeholder attribute. And this is because the aria-label tries to act like the native label element. Let’s add it to our search field.

<form role="search">
  <input aria-label="Find repositories..." type="search" name="search" placeholder="Find repositories.."/>

Because aria-label is just an attribute and not a HTML element, we don’t need to do any CSS magic to turn it invisible.


So this is it. We’ve explored two options to make our search field more accessible. The explicit label and the aria-label attribute. A short recap.

[^3]:Read more - MDN on Accessibility tree [^1]: Read more - Screen reader usage share [^2]: Read more - Visually hidden CSS snippet